Investigation of groundwater quality of Ramjannagar Union of Shyamnagar Upazila at Satkhira District, Bangladesh

 Background

Groundwater quality is the primary issue where it is the main source for drinking and other domestic use. Groundwater quality depends on the quality of recharged water, atmospheric precipitation, inland surface water and subsurface geochemical processes. Besides, different geochemical processes in groundwater governing the chemical characteristics of groundwater are well documented. The coastal aquifers usually serve as major sources of freshwater supply, such as drinking or irrigation water. In coastal regions, groundwater quality patterns are complex because of the input from many different water sources including precipitation, seawater, ascending deep groundwater and anthropogenic sources. In south-western coastal areas of Bangladesh, groundwater is the only source of freshwater for drinking water supply as surface waters are too saline with microbial contamination. However, the groundwater is now falling in unsafe condition due to over extraction and by many others natural phenomenon.

Ramjannagar is one of the coastal union of Shyamnagar Upazila under Satkhira district where groundwater from around 275m is the only source for potable water apart from rainwater. Groundwater of the region is having dark colour probably due to high dissolved organic carbon and iron content. In the preliminary investigation, it has been found that the groundwater contains hundred times greater dissolved organic carbon. High dissolved organic carbon may bind different heavy metals in groundwater which may have harmful health effects on the local community. So, it is important to investigate various water quality parameters of the groundwater. This study intended to investigate different physiochemical parameters of the groundwater to investigate its further health impacts.

 Objectives

  1. To measure different physical parameters of the groundwater of Ramjannagar Union of Shyamnagar Upazila
  2. To measure various chemical parameters of the groundwater of Ramjannagar Union of Shyamnagar Upazila
  3. To investigate probable health impacts of the various physiochemical parameters of groundwater.

 Approach and Methodology

The major steps of approach and methods include:

  • Secondary data collection and review
  • Field survey and on spot water sample analysis (of few parameters)
  • Water samples collection and laboratory analysis
  1. Secondary data collection and review:

Some research works have been conducted on groundwater of coastal area of Bangladesh. Before analysis, it is necessary to examine the literature in depth.

 2.  Water samples analysis:

Few physicochemical properties are needed to be determined on the spot (Table 1). Instruments will be carried to the field, and data will be collected.

Table 1: Required field and laboratory parameters

Field Parameters Laboratory Parameters
Parameters Instrument Name/Model Parameters Laboratory
Temperature Degree Celsius Thermometer Organic Carbon, Iron, Bicarbonate

Nitrate, Sulphate

Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium

 

 

 

Wazed Miah Science Research Centre and Water Research Centre of the Department of Environmental Sciences, Jahangirnagar University

pH EcoScan Ion 6
Eh EcoScan Ion 6
Conductivity Conductivity meter
Salinity EcoScan Salt 6
Global Position (Coordinate) GPS
TDS

 

TDS meter

 

 3. Water sample collection:

Statistically and the chemically feasible number of groundwater samples from tube wells will be collected for hydrochemical analyses from the study area. Water samples will be collected in 500ml plastic bottles. Each of the bottles will be rinsed with distilled water before pouring the sample water. The bottles will be labelled and airtight. Two sets of samples will be collected from the location. Halves will be non-acidified, and other will be acidified with 0.01 molar hydrochloric acid.

 4. Physical and chemical properties analysis:

Physical properties will be measured during fieldwork. Chemical parameters (Table 1) will be measured by AAS, titration and UV-spectrophotometric methods in Wazed Miah Science Research Centre and Water Research Centre of the Department of Environmental Sciences, Jahangirnagar University.

 5. Data analysis:

The resultant parameter will be analysed by using various graphical methods such as Piper diagram, stiff diagram, Wilcox diagram, etc. Different standard software such as Aquachem (version 3.7.42), Surfer (version 8) and Sigma Plot (version 7.0) will be used to analyse the sampling data.

Expected results                                                                                                                   

  • Understanding the source of groundwater of the study area.
  • Understanding the geochemical characteristics (physical and chemical) of the aquifer in the study area.

Importance of the Study

Groundwater is the most vital resource for humanity. Therefore detailed investigations regarding the groundwater quality are very essential. As groundwater is the only source of freshwater for drinking and irrigation water supply, the present study aims to determine its utility and find out the major geochemical process in the study area.